28 January 1961
Grégoire Kayibanda takes power. The “Ethnic democracy” concept becomes a foundation of the Parmehutu Party.
25 July 1959
Suspicious death of King Mutara Rudahigwa in Bujumbura. “Hutu social revolution” under Belgian Catholic Church control. Persecution of Tutsi, thousands die.
Introduction of the identity card stating Hutu, Tutsi and Twa ethnicity.
Belgium replaces Germany as colonial power. This sets off racialization of social relations.